Major international agreements are as follows. Context
is provided in the broader discussion of Intellectual
Property elsewhere on this
The 1883 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial
Property supplies basic norms such as national treatment
and convention priority rights for foreign patent applications
and other IP such as trademarks.
The 1961 International Convention for the Protection of
New Varieties of Plants (aka the Union Internationale
pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales
The 1970 Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) establishes a
procedure for the international filing, publication, search
and preliminary examination of international applications.
The Treaty does not have
authority to grant patents, which remains with national
The 1971 Strasbourg Agreement Concerning the International
Patent Classification (IPC) updates the International
Classification (IPC), used by most nations.
The 1977 Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition
of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patents
(1977) governs procedure for the deposit of a sample microorganism,
described in a patent application, with an International
Depositary Authority (IDA). It eliminates the need to
deposit microorganisms for the purposes of patent procedure
in each country in which protection is sought: a single
deposit with one IDA is recognized by all member nations.